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Presentation on theme: "Bio 101: Biological Principles Natasha Anwar. Lecture 1 Introduction The course Biology – the science of life Scientific Method."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bio 101: Biological Principles Natasha Anwar

2 Lecture 1 Introduction The course Biology – the science of life Scientific Method

3 The Course Core – 4 units 30 lectures – Tues & Thurs, 17.30 – 18.45 Fri, 17.30 – 18.20 Sayeed Saigol Auditorium 11 topics Final grade will be calculated as follows: Quizzes25% Assignments 5% Mid-term exam25% Term paper10% Final Exam35%

4 Student Assessment Quizzes – random, 15 min test Assignments – twice a week, 3 students selected at random to present their assignment. Mid-term exam – 1 hr, short answer questions. Term Paper Final Exam – 3 hr, short essay questions Attendance Understanding

5 Plagiarize “To use another persons idea or part of their work and pretend that it is your own”, Cambridge International Dictionary of English

6 Biology – the science of life bios, life; logos, knowledge The study of living organisms, and the biological processes that enable them to function and survive.

7 The study of life is complex so broken down into compartments Within a cell Among cells in an organ Among the organ systems in an organism Between organisms and the environment Among individuals in a population Between species Reductionist Principle Chemicals Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism Population Community Ecosystem

8 Biology Microbiology Virology Bacteriology Mycology Anatomy Gross structure Physiology gross function Cell biology cells Genetics Inheritance Zoology animals Botany plants Biochemistry /Molecular Biology molecules

9 Living Organisms Are capable of :- Growth and development Metabolism Homeostatis Movement Detect and react to stimuli Reproduction Composed of cells Contain DNA Adaptation and evolution

10 How were biological principles discovered?

11 The Scientific Method Facts Observation data qualitativequantitative Hypothesis controlled experiments results Interpretation Law theory accept modify reject Biological Science, 3 rd Edition pp 951

12 Example Observation: There are always so many flies at the butchers shop, especially around rotting meat

13 Example Question: Where do flies in the shop come from, and does rotting meat produce or turn into the flies? Hypothesis: Rotten meat dose not turn into flies. Only flies can make more flies. Prediction: If meat cannot make more flies, rotting meat sealed into a container should not produce flies or maggots.

14 Example Experimental Testing: 1. Wide mouth jars each containing a piece of meat opened to various degrees. 2. Control group – a jar of meat set out without a lid. 3. Experimental groups – one group of jars were sealed with lids another group with gauze. 4. Replication – several jars were included in each group. 5. Presence and absence of flies and maggots seen in each jar were recorded.

15 Example Data: In control group – flies entered jar, maggots seen later and then more flies seen on the meat. In gauze covered jars – no flies in the jar, but on and around the gauze. Later maggots seen on the meat. In the sealed jars – no maggots or flies seen on the meat.

16 Example Conclusion: Only flies can make more flies. Uncovered jars flies came and laid eggs on the meat. Maggots hatched from the eggs and grew into adult flies. Adult flies laid eggs on the gauze, eggs or maggots dropped through gauze onto meat.

17 Incomplete Research An example of a scientific conclusions based on insufficient scientific method occurred in the field of breast cancer research. Breast cancer is caused when normal cells change and produce a tumour. In a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine (336, 1269 (1997)), scientists from Norway studied the incidence of breast cancer in 25,624 women. Participants gave details about their height, weight, diets, and exercise habits. The results showed an over all reduction of breast cancer by 37% for women who exercise regularly. Women who are lean and exercise at least 4 hrs per week showed the lowest incidence.

18 Does Exercise Prevent Breast Cancer? Many newspapers picked up on the data with headlines stating that exercise prevents cancer An editorial in the same journal put the results in proper perspective. Women who exercise regularly have higher levels of education and income, smoke less, drink less alcohol, and consume fewer calories and less fat. Establishing a casual pathway between reduced breast cancer and physical activity will require exploration for biologic mechanisms and confirmation with clinical experiments.

19 Quote: “ The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may mainly be a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science ” Albert Einstein

Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Living With Disease 浙江绍兴鲁迅中学 孙云珍 Teaching Goals of Reading 1. Talk about deadly diseases and attitudes towards them. 2. Know about the life of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit 7 Living With Disease 浙江绍兴鲁迅中学 孙云珍

3 Teaching Goals of Reading 1. Talk about deadly diseases and attitudes towards them. 2. Know about the life of people with AIDS. 3. Know about the basic means of protecting us from being infected by HIV virus. ★ 4. Know how to care, share and show love. 5.To learn some useful language points.

4 Pre-reading Leading-in

5 What is the life of a twelve-year-old girl full of / like ? flowers sunshine 12 = smiles tomorrow … hopes dream 12death 12 = death ? ! happiness new life new hope no worries no sorrows no harms

6 If you had an incurable disease, how would you feel? How would you act towards the sudden change? feelingattitude

7 While- reading

8 Skimming 1. What does the title mean? 2. What feeling does it give you? 3. What kind of story will the passage talk about? 4. What kind of words will be used?

9 Scanning Find the key words and the main idea of each paragraph. 1. Xiaohua 2. AIDS 3. infected 4. children 5. little hope 6. suffer 7. live with AIDS

10 Listening and answer 1. How was Xiaohua infected with AIDS? 2. In what ways does AIDS spread? 3. How many children were infected with AIDS in 2002?

11 Each year, more than 5 million people become infected with HIV.

12 In 2002, more than 40 million people in the world were living with HIV or AIDS.

13 Since the first case was discovered in 1981, nearly 27 million have died of AIDS.

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15 diseases cold headache toothache diarrhoea coughing insomnia heart attack scald cut While talking about AIDS, what other diseases can you think of? Pre-reading While talking about AIDS, what other diseases can you think of? cancer AIDS deadly diseases burn stroke diabetes osteoporosis

16 AIDS Incurable ?! Incurable ?!

17 Pair work: Ask and answer questions based on the main idea of each paragraph Para 1:Xiaohua gets AIDS Para 2:What AIDS is Para 3:How Xiaohua got infected with AIDS Para 4:Thousands of children get AIDS Para 5:Xiaohua has a hopeless life but a clear aim Para 6:People with AIDS suffer from more than AIDS Para 7:Xiaohua is optimistic about her limited life

18 Why do we say it’s incurable? Why do we say it’s incurable? What’s the full name of AIDS? What’s the full name of AIDS? Can AIDS be transmitted? Can AIDS be transmitted? In what ways can it be transmitted? In what ways can it be transmitted? What kind of people are likely to get AIDS? What kind of people are likely to get AIDS? Do people with AIDS look healthy at first? Do people with AIDS look healthy at first? Is it safe or dangerous to stay or to be friends with them? Why? Is it safe or dangerous to stay or to be friends with them? Why? Pair work

19 break down defenceless defenceless treatment, not available treatment, not available incurable incurable Q1: Why is AIDS a deadly disease? Further Questions

20 AIDS, which is caused by _____, can be transmitted via __________ sex, _______ blood __________ or through _______.AIDS, which is caused by _____, can be transmitted via __________ sex, _______ blood __________ or through _______. unprotected infected transfusion birth HIV  As a result, 3.2 million children were infected in2002. infected in2002. How is AIDS spread?

21 Q2: Why do the young suffer the most? a lack of painful,difficult even if, not infected, ruin

22 Q3: Is the disease the only thing that AIDS patients suffer from? fear ignorance ignorance misunderstanding misunderstanding

23 Q4: What can be done to improve the situation? by the government: by the government: by specialists and doctors: by specialists and doctors: by other people: by other people: by the patients themselves: by the patients themselves:

24 not discouraged encourage encourage visit, support, cheer up visit, support, cheer up create a network, persuade create a network, persuade talk to people talk to people Q5: As an AIDS patient, what does Xiaohua do?

25 I wish I could remember…I wish I could remember… If I were to live long…If I were to live long… I wish people could…I wish people could… If I were you…If I were you… Q6: What are Xiaohua’s wishes? Q7: How do you find her? If you meet her, what will you do to her?

26 Post-reading Task Post-reading Task

27 Group work: Discussion 1. Is Xiaohua unlucky? Why? Is Xiaohua lucky? Why? 2. What do you think of Xiaohua? 3. What have you learned from Xiaohua? What should you do as a healthy person? 4. What can you do for others?

28 The first wealth is health. Live the life to the fullest. Learn to express thanks to… Learn to find pleasure in work / study / life… If anyone shows their love, the world will be more beautiful! smile share care value cheer love Learn to show

29 12death 12 = no worries no sorrows no harms tomorrow … new life flowers sunshine smiles hopes dream happiness new hope smile share care value cheer love Learn to

30 AIDS is a disease that breaks down the body’s immune system and leaves a person defenceless against infections and illnesses. People get AIDS after having been infected with HIV, the virus that causes the disease.There are millions of people who die of AIDS every year. AIDS is a disease that breaks down the body’s immune system and leaves a person defenceless against infections and illnesses. People get AIDS after having been infected with HIV, the virus that causes the disease.There are millions of people who die of AIDS every year. Assessment

31 So far, there is no treatment available for the disease and AIDS patients have to deal with the fact that they might die young. Unfortunately, a deadly disease such as AIDS also frightens others. Because of a lack of knowledge about how it gets transmitted, people often treat AIDS patients as if they were bad or dangerous. So far, there is no treatment available for the disease and AIDS patients have to deal with the fact that they might die young. Unfortunately, a deadly disease such as AIDS also frightens others. Because of a lack of knowledge about how it gets transmitted, people often treat AIDS patients as if they were bad or dangerous.

32 Xiaohua is a 12-year-old girl. Though she has been living with AIDS for 12 years, she is not discouraged by the disease. On the contrary, it makes her realize how precious life is and how important it is to live life to the fullest. Xiaohua is a 12-year-old girl. Though she has been living with AIDS for 12 years, she is not discouraged by the disease. On the contrary, it makes her realize how precious life is and how important it is to live life to the fullest.

33 Homework 1. Retell the text about 100 words 2.Writing proposals to call on people to care for the patients

34 World AIDS Day World AIDS Day is approaching, our school is planning some theme activities on that day and now it is collecting ideas from you students. Your creations should include: ♦ the theme of this year ♦ different activities

35 Is it a good idea to invite Xiaohua to give us a lecture? If you were Xiaohua, what would you say to us? Please prepare a speech.

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