The Causes of Social Exclusion Essay
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The Causes of Social Exclusion
Social exclusion refers to inequality in society, where individuals or groups may be cut off in involvement with the wider society. Social exclusion can take a number of forms. An individual or group may be excluded due to their age cohert, gender, race, educational background, neighbourhood, class and more. A class in social terms can be defines as a large scale grouping of people who share common economic resources which strongly influence the type of lifestyle they are able to lead. (Gidden, 2001 p.282) There are mainly three types of classes in society today, the upper class, the working class and the underclass. The underclass population being structured at…show more content…
(Muncie, 1999 p.140)
Ken (1982) believes that the underclass is the people that cannot escape from poverty. He believes that there are four following underclass groups:
1) The passive poor, usually long term welfare recipients (presumably lone mothers)
2) The hostile street criminals, dropouts and drug addicts
3) The hustlers, dependant n the underground economy but rarely involved in violent crimes
4) The traumatised drunks, drifters, homeless bag ladies and released mental patients.
A protagonist, Charles Murray believes that though illegitimate births are the prime factor for development of the underclass, a definite proof is of young and healthy males who choose not to work. He said that violent crimes, illegitimate births, and unemployment were the main reasons for an underclass. Although single mothers could be good mothers and single fathers good fathers, it is not the same as having two parents and being brought up in a stable household.
Illegitimacy has increased since 1979 and is still increasing. These births are not evenly spread throughout Britain; they are more common in the lowest social class. Murray’s research has indicated that the larger the proportion of people whom wok at unskilled jobs and the larger the proportion who are out of the labour force, the higher the illegitimacy ratio. Murray
Researchers define social exclusion in various dimensions. According to Duffy (1995) as cited by Tong,Lai, Zeng, & Xu (2011) social exclusion is referred as ‘the inability to participate effectively in economic, social, political and cultural life, alienation and distance from the mainstream society’. In the similar study Walker and Walker (1997) considers social exclusion as ‘the dynamic process of being shutout’from any of the social, economic, political and cultural systems which determine the social integration of a person in society’. In today’s world, it is observed that people with lack of interaction with others and the environment mainly suffer from mental illnesses such as depression and certain emotional conditions including loneliness and hopelessness. Also, intellectual disability and significant alteration in the behavior may result from social exclusion. Moreover, Social exclusion greatly influences on how we mentally perceive individuals and the group and also provide information about one’s relationship with others. (Wyer,2008)
Every individual desires to live a meaningful life by achieving their set goals. If goal are not met according to their will then frustration may result and they end up with an emotional distress. However, socially excluded people perceived their life meaningless. Such people tend to conceal their feelings from the society and depict lack of interest to engage in various social activities. They usually isolate themselves from society. According to Baumeister’s model of meaning, life has meaning to purpose, value and self-worth. Perceiving life as meaningful executes positive outcomes in individuals with being satisfied with their life, enjoying work, showing happiness and keeping hopes. In contrast, such individuals experience low levels of negative outcomes including stress and depression when they have perceived meaning for life.(Stillman, Baumeister, Lambert, Crescioni, DeWall, & Fincham et al.,2009). Impact of Social exclusion can be reflected from behavioural changes in affectees. Reinforcment sensitivity theory suggested two dimensions/measurement i.e. behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS). BIS measures the negative reinforcement whereas BAS measures positive reinforcement. (Yanagisawa, Masui, Onoda, Furutani, Nomura, Yoshida, & Ura, 2011) Furthermore, lack of social interaction also impairs the cognitive perception of the individual who are victim of being rejected by and from the society. William (1997,2002) as cited by (Yanagisawa, Masui, Onoda, Furutani, Nomura, Yoshida, & Ura, 2011) proposed theory that repeated social exclusion interferes the need such as belongingness, self-esteem and control over emotions as a result it may cause psychological distress.
Individual level: Identify the group of cilent’s who are being rejected and analyze their need accordingly to enhance social interaction among them.
Community level: Educational awareness programmes should be conducted to spread awareness and knowledge regarding social inclusion. Provide opportunities for availing services that are accessible in the community.
PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION 3
National level: According to their capabilities, deliver jobs offer to facilitate them in order to attain therapeutic communications among those individual’s who have lack social interaction.
Socially excluded people usually tend to perceive themselves as inferior kind of human being in such a way that their basic psychological need like social relationships, self-esteem, and motivation become low along with impairment in the intellectual ability. On the other hand, Behavioual component also play a major role in relation to attitudes, mannerism and reactions in certain conditions that should be acceptable and to become socially included as a part of the society.